This trainer manual for all staff and volunteers has been produced within the Psychological First Aid and Psycho-social Support in
Complex Emergencies (PFA-CE) Project funded by the European Union.
In times of more frequent and long-term disasters and crises, the project aims at improving Mental
Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) disaster response capacities of European emergency and
volunteer organisations by strengthening Psychological First Aid (PFA) and Psychosocial Support (PSS)
competencies of staff and volunteers.
The term complex emergencies1 may be a little bit confusing, as is normally used in a different
meaning. In this project we refer to complexity in the sense of long lasting and repeated disaster
situations that pose a special challenge to European MHPSS management systems.